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Facts About Freshwater Biomes

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Freshwater biomes contain 3% of the Earth’s water. 99% of that 3% of water is ice or it is located under the surface in aquifers. Freshwater biomes contain less than 1% of salt. They are the second most diverse group of animals and plants. Freshwater biomes can be found all over the world. There is a number of birds and mammals that depend on the fresh biomes for food and water. Continue reading to find out more about freshwater biomes.

3 zones of a freshwater biome3 zones of a freshwater biome.

Freshwater biomes

Freshwater biomes are made of ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, creeks, and pretty much anything that is fresh water made. They have a wide spectrum of animal and plant life that call the biomes home. They are the most spread out biomes the world over. They typically consist of moving water; moving water is more oxygenated and contains different types of fish.

Parts of a biome

A biome consists of three types of zones. The littoral zone is close to the shore where sunlight can reach the bottom. It is the home of frogs, turtles, snails, rooted plants, small fish, floating plants, and in the warmest areas algae. The Limnetic zone is the open water that surrounds the littoral zone. This zone is where photosynthesis occurs; this is also where plankton and algae flourishes. The Profundal zone only occurs in deep lakes. In this area, light is dim and organic matter that consist of dying or dead organisms are consumed by fungi, bacteria, and bottom-dwelling fish. These bottom-dwelling animals are called the benthos.


Freshwater biomes consist of more than 700 different species of fish including trout, catfish, heterotrophs and carp. They contain 41% of total fish species found in the world. There are over 1200 species of amphibians. They are also home to reptiles, birds especially ducks and waders, furbearers, crocodiles, alligators, frogs, turtles, hippopotamus and platypus. Some plants that thrive in these biomes are algae, cattails, tamarack, myrtle, false ivy and brine-spike.


Freshwater biomes are home to countless animals however they are in danger from pollution from farm runoff; recreational boating, fast food packaging and industrial discharges just to name a few. Read more about freshwater biomes such as the wetland.